Allah + You = Enough

Allah + You = Enough

Thursday, June 25, 2015

REDUNDANCY – “PEMBOROSAN! (naik ke atas, turun ke bawah)

Redundancy juga dikenal sebagai adj excessive; repetitious
Redundancy artinya kelebihan atau pemborosan. Sebuah kalimat dikatakan redudant (berlebihan) apabila ada kata atau kelompok kata tambahan yang tidak perlu dalam kalimat yang membuat kalimat tersebut tidak efektif, karena tanpa kata atau kelompok kata tambahan tersebut itu pun maksudnya tetap sama. Dengan kata lain, kalimat itu ngga efektif dan berlebihan.
Terkadang kita ngga sadar nglakuin pemborosan dalam menulis atau berucap, contohnya ‘naik ke atas’, ‘turun ke bawah’, ‘repeat again’, dan masih banyak contoh lainnya.
Berikut adalah kelompok kata Redundancy
  • Advance forward (maju ke depan)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: The car advanced slowly in the rain.
  • Return back (mengembalikan kembali)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: You should returned the book before Friday.
  • Sufficient enough (cukup)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: He did not have sufficient time to finish his project.
  • Compete together (bersaing bersama)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: We have to compete very tightly in this business.
  • Reason …. Because (alasannya … karena)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: The reason is that we do not have much time to wait for her.
  • Join together (bergabung bersama)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: Will you join our club?
  • Repeat again (mengulang lagi)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: I want you to repeat what you have said.
  • New innovations (inovasi baru)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: Teachers should have innovation in teaching.
  • Same identical (identik sama)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: My mother wants skirts of the same size.
  • Two twins (kembar dua)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: My uncle like the two children.
  • The time when (waktu ketika)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: Everything isn’t only what it seemed so hold these words that you never told me. It’s time to say goodbye
The place where (tempat dimana)
Contoh penggunaan yang benar: So here we are now, in a place where the sun blended with the ocean thin.

Examples: 

• You must first do this before you go. (Incorrect) 
• You must do this before you go. (Correct) 

• The flight will arrive at 7 p.m. in the afternoon. (Incorrect) 
• The flight will arrive at 7 p.m. (Correct) 

• He carefully examined each and every letter. (Incorrect) 
• He carefully examined each letter. (Correct) 

• In my opinion, I think it is going to rain. (Incorrect) 
• I think it is going to rain. (Correct) 

• Frank was elected as Chairman unanimously by all members. (Incorrect) 
• Frank was elected as Chairman unanimously. (Correct) 

• I have a client of mine who insists on paying his fee in advance. (Incorrect) 
• I have a client who insists on paying his fee in advance. (Correct) 

• Have you read the latest biography of Indira Gandhi’s life? (Incorrect) 
• Have you read the latest biography of Indira Gandhi? (Correct) 

• The police restored the stolen purse back to the rightful owner. (Incorrect) 
• The police restored the stolen purse to the rightful owner. (Correct) 

• All other boys except Peter came for picnic. (Incorrect) 
• All boys except Peter came for picnic. (Correct) 

• I am looking for a job with a salary of at least US $2000 or more. (Incorrect) 
• I am looking for a job with a salary of at least US $2000. (Correct) 

• You must come promptly at 10 a.m. or else we will leave without you. (Incorrect) 
• You must come promptly at 10 a.m. or we will leave without you. (Correct) 

• The prices of Car companies have fallen down by 30% in the last one week. (Incorrect) 
• The prices of Car companies have fallen by 30% in the last one week. (Correct) 
Kalimat-kalimat berikut mengandung redundancy. Penjelasan pilihan kata yang salah diberikan setelah masing-masing kalimat agar Anda dapat memahaminya segera.
1.      The best way to learn English is to repeat the lesson again at home so that they won’t forget it easily. (Jawaban: again adalah redundancy karena kata repeat sudah mengandung arti “mengulang lagi”)

2.    You must translate the text in a careful mannerin order that the meaning of the text in the source language is not lost. (Jawaban: in a careful manner adalah redundancy. Seharusnya carefully bisa digunakan)

3.      The language that it is used internationallyshould be mastered before you participate in an international organization. (Jawaban: it adalah redundancy karena sudah diwakili oleh that sebagai subyek anak kalimat “that is used internationally”. Berarti kata “it” tidak diperlukan.)

4.      Buying or purchasing new cars on credit has become an unavoidable habit because leasing companies have tried to offer monthly low installment payment. (Jawaban: buying or purchasing adalah redundancy. Seharusnya “Buying new cars” atau Purchasing new cars”)

5.      Not wanting to be late for the seminar, I decided to leave early because there was not any certainty as to what time the seminar will start tomorrow. (Jawaban: there was not any certainty adalah redundancy. Seharusnya diganti dengan it wasn’t certain)

6.      Mr. Lutfi is an authority who knows a great deal about customs and traditions of Lampung tribes because he was born and brought up in a village that still uphold traditional values in Lampung. (Jawaban: who knows a great deal adalah redundancy dan harus dihilangkan karena authority sudah mengandung arti who knows a great deal)

Sources: 
https://dkharaditiandi.wordpress.com/2011/07/31/redundancy-pemborosan-hindari-ini/
http://english-mygrammar.blogspot.com/2012/10/redundancy-problems-in-english.html

Thursday, June 4, 2015

When do We Use Gerunds or To Infinitive ?

We use gerunds (verb + ing):
  • After certain verbs - I enjoy singing
  • After prepositions - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving
  • As the subject or object of a sentence - Swimming is good exercise

Here are some of the most common verbs that are usually followed by the gerund:
enjoyI enjoyed living in France
fancyI fancy seeing a film tonight
discussWe discussed going on holiday together
dislikeI dislike waiting for buses
finishWe've finished preparing for the meeting
mindI don't mind coming early
suggestHe suggested staying at the Grand Hotel
recommendThey recommended meeting earlier
keepHe kept working, although he felt ill
avoidShe avoided talking to her boss

We use 'to' + infinitive:
  • After certain verbs - We decided to leave
  • After many adjectives - It's difficult to get up early
  • To show purpose - I came to London to study English
We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without 'to'):
  • After modal verbs - I can meet you at six o'clock
  • After 'let', 'make' and (sometimes) 'help' - The teacher let us leave early
  • After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) - I watched her walk away
  • After expressions with 'why' - why go out the night before an exam?
And here are some common verbs followed by 'to' and the infinitive:
agreeShe agreed to give a presentation at the meeting
ask*I asked to leave early / I asked him to leave early
decideWe decided to go out for dinner
help*He helped to clean the kitchen / he helped his flatmate to clean the kitchen
planShe plans to buy a new flat next year
hopeI hope to pass the exam
learnThey are learning to sing
want*I want to come to the party / I want him to come to the party
would like*I would like to see her tonight / I would like you to see her tonight
promiseWe promised not to be late
*We can use an object before the infinitive with these verbs.
Source:
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/gerunds-and-infinitives-verbs-1.html

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